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Amsterdam is a great place and don't worry about travelling alone, you'll see hundreds of single travellers there all doing the same thing. Once you arrive at the city it can be a bit intimidating to a first timer, what with all the marijuana coffeeshops, sex shops and prostitutes standing in the windows in their lingerie, lol. Amsterdam has it's fair share of beggars, usually run-aways who do nothing but pester tourists selling hard drugs (just keep walking, don't even utter a word and they will leave you alone) Everyone speaks English but as for working, it's not going to be easy as you have to register and open up a bank account there and have a local permanent address and many forms to fill out, it's not impossible to find some work but if I were honest I would say you won't find anything unless your qualified or have a skill in something. Beware of the trams and millions of bicycles, believe me you'll be amazed at how many people use bikes. Keep out of the pavements painted red (for bikes) and if you smoke weed, be careful as it can knock you side ways if you buy certain strong strains. I would also advise getting a Euro rail card which you can buy according to how many European borders you will cross and what countries you'll visit (it's not cheap, btw)
Getting work in the UK will be easier for you, we Brits like you Aussies and welcome you all. Spain is a lovely place, the woman are gorgeous and it's lovely and laid back, I would say Barcelona would be the place to visit in Spain.
Have a good one